A Cathedral is the church where the Bishop has his cathedra, which means chair in Latin.
There is a Bishop (or Archbishop) in each Diocese (or Archdiocese).
A Diocese is an ecclesiastical district, the Dioceses are often the same territory as the political provinces, but not always.
Usually the Cathedral of each Diocese/Province is located in the biggest city of the province.
The Cathedral is not always the biggest or ‘fanciest’ church in a city. For example in Barcelona Sagrada Familia is not the Cathedral.
There can not be two Cathedrals in one city, as there can’t be two bishops.
To make things a little bit more complicated there are concathedrals, this happens when a bishop has more than two seats, or cathedras, in different towns of the same diocese. This is not common, and when it happens is for an ‘historical mess’ between territories.
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